safe interenet for kida
safe interenet for kida
In Pontifex you design and test bridges. Pontifex uses a complex physics engine which allows the construction of many different types of bridges. Once your design is completed, you can test the strength of your bridge by sending a train across it. Depending on the quality of the bridge's design, the train will either pass over safely or plummet into the river below. The 3D engine lets you view your bridge from any angle, including a first-person "strapped to the front of the train" view. Many different levels are included, from simple to complex, and a level editor allows you to make your own levels to trade with others.
Some software titles are played once or twice and then sit on the shelf collecting dust, while other titles are played over and over, even as the child grows and learns. Some are even played by the parents, too! Our goal is always to buy those long lasting titles, but its not easy to tell from the package which titles will be popular with our gifted kids and young adults.
Software Favorites includes software titles that are perpetually popular with gifted kids, young adults, and their parents. Each entry includes the software title, publisher, and publisher's recommended ages, as well as the age (in parenthesis) that our kids first enjoyed the software.
From the page: "Creating new Google Chrome user profile
1.Completely close all opened Chrome windows.
2.Click Start button and Run , enter the following directories .
For Windows XP - %USERPROFILE%Local SettingsApplication DataGoogleChromeUser Data
For Vista/7 - %USERPROFILE%AppDataLocalGoogleChromeUser Data
3.You can observe Default folder which is Chrome窶s default profile, rename default folder to Backup Default .
Now when you start Chrome , a new default folder will be created automatically.After that you can transfer browser bookmarks and other settings to newly created profile."
From the page: "Depending on your child窶s age and the fluoride concentration in your local water supply, the fluoride supplementation schedule is recommended by the American Academy of Pediatrics:
FLUORIDE CONCENTRATION IN LOCAL WATER SUPPLY,
PARTS PER MILLION
AGE OF CHILD
Daily Dosage of Fluoride
6 months to three years 0.25 mg 0.00 0.00
3-6 years 0.50 mg 0.25 mg 0.00
6 years to at least 16 years 1.0 mg 0.50 mg 0.00"
From the page: "Parents should use a tiny smear of fluoride toothpaste to brush baby teeth twice daily as soon as they erupt, instead of waiting until children are older, according to new guidelines by the American Dental Association.
That advice overturns the A.D.A.âs decades-old recommendation to start using a pea-size amount at 24 months. Once children are 3 to 6 years old, then the amount should be increased to a pea-size dollop, the updated guidelines say.
To fight the rising number of cavities in the very young, the dental group now advises getting a jump-start on prevention. However, they emphasize only the tiniest amount of fluoride toothpaste should be used to minimize the risk of mild discoloration, white spots or streaking of the teeth, a condition called fluorosis that is caused by ingesting fluoride toothpaste at a young age.
âoeWe want to minimize the amount of fluoride consumption to reduce the risk of fluorosis while simultaneously adding a preventive tool for kids 2 and under that we havenât recommended previously,â said Dr. Jonathan Shenkin, a spokesman for the A.D.A. and a pediatric dentist in Augusta, Me. Only a tiny amount of toothpaste should be smeared on the brush since some youngsters are likely to ingest some of the fluoride, he said.
The change comes after a systematic review of 17 studies published in The Journal of the American Dental Association this month. It concluded that scientific evidence, though limited in children under age 6 and more robust in older children, demonstrated that fluoride toothpaste is effective in controlling tooth decay, and that âoethe appropriate amountâ should be used âoeby all children regardless of age.â
An early start is crucial, Dr. Shenkin said, because children with dental decay are at greater risk of developing cavities as adults. âoeBy starting earlier, we can effectively reduce a lifetime of disease for a lot of kids.â
Dr. Man Wai Ng, the dentist in chief at Childrenâs Hospital Boston, applauded the new recommendation and said, âoeItâs a great thing for parents to know: âUse a tiny amount of fluoride, and brush two times a day to counter the effects of frequent snacking.ââ
Most of the children she sees with tooth decay are using âoea training toothpaste without fluoride,â she said. "
From the page: "Fluoride treatment in children has helped to account for the decline in periodontal disease in adults. Because fluoride prevents decay, back molars, which keep the teeth in place, are spared, and are thus less vulnerable to bacteria. Even before teeth first erupt, babies'' gums should be wiped clean with a bit of gauze bearing a dab of fluoride toothpaste. Supplementation with fluoride tablets or drops may be recommended for children 6 months or older who drink unfluoridated water or who are at risk for dental problems. A prescription from the child''s pediatrician or dentist is require
teeth brushing: Brushing Guidelines. The following are some recommendations for brushing:
Use a dry brush. One study reported that when people brushed their teeth without toothpaste first, using a soft dry brush, their plaque deposits were reduced by 67%, and gum bleeding dropped by 50%.
No brush of any size, shape, or gimmick is effective if it is incorrectly positioned in the mouth. Place the brush where the gum meets the tooth, with bristles resting along each tooth at a 45-degree angle.
Begin by dry brushing the inside the bottom row of teeth, then the inner top teeth, and last the outer surfaces.
Wiggle the brush back and forth so the bristles extend under the gum line.
Scrub the broad, biting surfaces of the back teeth.
Dry brushing should take about a minute and a half.
Chlorhexidine (Peridex or PerioGard) is available by prescription only. It reduces plaque by 55% and gingivitis by 30 - 45%. Patients should rinse for 1 minute twice daily. They should wait at least 30 minutes between brushing and rinsing since chlorhexidine can be inactivated by certain compounds in toothpastes. It has a bitter taste. It also binds to tannins, which are in tea, coffee, and red wine, so it has tendency to stain teeth in people who drink these beverages.
Listerine is composed of essential oils and is available over the counter. It reduces plaque and gingivitis, when used for 30 seconds twice a day. It leaves a burning sensation in the mouth that most people better tolerate after a few days of use. Some people might object to or have concerns about the high alcohol content in the standard version. Other forms of Listerine that have a different taste and lower alcohol content retain the same active ingredients and appear to be as effective. The usual regimen is to rinse twice a day. Generic equivalents are available. (Listerine PocketPaks, which are strips that dissolve on the tongue, have no proven effects on plague and gingivitis.)
From the page: "
MSG is a sodium salt of Glutamic Acid, an amino acid and is a drug. It acts as an excitatory neurotransmitter. It basically causes the nerve cells to discharge an electrical impulse and that's the basis of its use as a flavor enhancer. Food companies learned that MSG could increase the flavor and aroma and enhance acceptability of commercial food products.
Equally important they learned that it could also uppress undesirable or "off" flavors, bitterness, and sourness and eliminated the "tinny" taste of canned foods. This is the reason food companies in general have no intention of giving up MSG as an additive in their products.
USA national consumption of MSG went from roughly one million pounds in 1950 to 300 times that amount today.
Here's the bottom line: As the dose increases, every single human will react to MSG at some point. At certain doses it becomes toxic enough to cause illness."
A nutritional supplement packed with vitamins and minerals helped reduce symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults and improved mood in a subset with moderate depression, new research shows.
A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial conducted by investigators at the University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand, showed that a micronutrient formula consisting of vitamins and minerals was significantly better than placebo in reducing ADHD symptoms.
"Our study provides preliminary evidence of the effectiveness of micronutrients in the treatment of ADHD symptoms in adults. This could open up treatment options for people with ADHD who may not tolerate medications or do not respond to first-line treatments," lead investigator Julia Rucklidge, PhD, clinical psychology professor, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand, said in a statement.
From the page: "Any parent would be hard-pressed to find a child who doesn't find playing video games a popular pastime. But you can't assume that every game your child wants to play will be "kid friendly." With doctors linking violent video games and aggression, it would be wise to consider Entertainment Software Rating Board ratings, referrals from other parents you trust, and a true evaluation of the content 窶" before buying your child the game he's been badgering you about. To cut down the time it takes to do your homework, Circle of Moms members share 10 nonviolent video games that still ensure hours of fun.
From the page: "The Impotence of Creationism
Its complete nonsense. But as a compartmentalized fantasy, its harmless."
From the page: "As it turns out, the childhood vaccines that confer long-lasting protection to kids also seem to be evolution-proof. Children who get shots against measles, rubella, and polio are unlikely to get these diseases, even years down the road. In essence, the vaccine mimics the extraordinary long-term protection conferred by getting sick, without all the misery. Those who suffer through whooping-cough infections, by contrast, tend not to gain lifelong protection, and neither do those vaccinated against the disease. This was true with the old whole-cell shots, and is even truer with the acellular version. (Other factors, related to whether the pathogen enters the bloodstream and how strongly it stimulates the immune system, also play a role in how long protection lasts, according to Paul Offit, the chief of the division of infectious diseases at the Children窶s Hospital of Philadelphia.) Researchers are already working on an updated whooping-cough vaccine that they hope will provide longer-lasting immunity. (Returning to the old vaccine, with its harsher side effects, seems neither politically possible nor appealing.) At the same time, it窶s worth appreciating the lives already saved by whooping-cough shots窶"as well as by the many other vaccines that have been passed down now, like heirlooms, for generations"
From the page: "Health.com: America's healthiest superfoods for women
Like brown rice, black rice is full of antioxidant-rich bran, which is found in the outer layer that gets removed during the milling process to make white rice. But only black-rice bran contains the antioxidants known as anthocyanins, purple and reddish pigments -- also found in blueberries, grapes, and acai -- that have been linked to a decreased risk of heart disease and cancer, improvements in memory, and other health benefits.
One spoonful of black-rice bran -- or 10 spoonfuls of cooked black rice -- contains the same amount of anthocyanin as a spoonful of fresh blueberries, according to a new study presented today at the American Chemical Society, in Boston.
"I think the black-rice bran has an advantage over blueberries, because blueberries still contain a high level of sugar," says the lead researcher, Zhimin Xu, Ph.D., an associate professor at Louisiana State University Agricultural Center, in Baton Rouge.
Health.com: Amazing benefits of blueberries
Black rice isn't currently grown on a commercial scale in the U.S., but Xu hopes that his research will spur farmers in the Southeast to start growing it.
The combination of antioxidants found in black rice packs a one-two punch that could make it a particularly good food for your health.
Some antioxidants in black (and brown) rice are fat-soluble, while anthocyanins are water-soluble and can therefore reach different areas of the body, says Joe Vinson, Ph.D., a professor of chemistry at the University of Scranton, in Pennsylvania."
From the page: "Physiological Impact of Lower Testosterone
Currently, there is little evidence to suggest that the development of low resting testosterone levels in men doing endurance training has any major detrimental effect on the testosterone-dependent physiological processes of the body. There is the potential for disruption in any of the processes influenced by testosterone, and obviously reproductive capacity is of key concern. Few studies have systematically studied this issue and currently only a few reports of decreased spermatogenesis or oligospermatic conditions existing in endurance trained males have been published. Additionally, some investigators have reported endurance trained men may have a lowered sex drive; but a direct cause-and-effect linkage between a lower sex drive and testosterone did not exist in these data.
There are also apparently no significant detrimental effects of lower testosterone on the other anabolic-androgenic effects of testosterone (protein synthesis and muscle mass development). However, this area has not been examined thoroughly by the exercise science community. An additional area in need of research concerns bone demineralization and low testosterone. Clinically, there is strong evidence indicating hypogonadal and hypo-testosteronemic men have severe mineral loss from their bones. There are no conclusive findings of mineral content change in endurance trained men with low testosterone, but several compelling case studies have been reported in the literature.
On the other hand, there could be beneficial physiologic adaptations from the lowered testosterone. Some researchers indicate that lowering testosterone may have cardiovascular protective effects and decrease the risk of coronary heart disease. A recent study out of Germany has provided strong evidence supporting this claim. This research has demonstrated that chemically induced reductions in endogenous testosterone level results in significant increases in high-density lipoprotein in men. Whether the lowering of testosterone in men performing endurance training will produce the same effect remains to be determined.
Endurance exercise training would seem to have significant effects upon the major male reproductive hormone, testosterone. A growing body of evidence suggests at rest testosterone is lowered in the endurance-trained male. The mechanism of this lowering is currently unclear, but may be related to dysfunction within the HPT regulatory axis brought about by months or years of endurance training. Currently, the time course of the changes in the reproductive endocrine system are unresolved. There are only limited findings to indicate that endurance training disrupts testosterone-dependent anabolic or androgenic processes in the male. The alterations in testosterone levels brought by endurance exercise training could even have cardiovascular protective effects."
From the page: "Age and Training Response
An appropriately graded aerobic training program can augment the aerobic power of 65 year old subjects by as much as 10 ml.kg-1.min-1 over a 3 month period, effectively reducing the biological age of the oxygen transporting system by 20 years. A lack of aerobic power thus should not limit the independence of a well-trained, active individual unless she or he survives to the unlikely age of 100 years. Aerobic training eliminates premature disability, but has little influence on survival beyond the age of 80 years. Rather, it induces a "squaring" of morbidity and mortality curves, so that good health is preserved until shortly before death (4). Activity patterns in late middle age are quite strong predictors of the likelihood of dependency as a senior (11).
Because initial fitness is quite low, the aerobic condition of a senior can be improved by low intensity of training. Gains are greatest if a heart rate of 130-140 beats.min-1 can be sustained, but useful if slower progress is seen with regular training at heart rates of 110-120 beats.min-1 . In the frail elderly, heart rates rarely exceed 85 beats.min-1, and some training response may then be anticipated even with activities inducing a heart rate of only 100 beats.min-1."
From the page: "Noices first and most surprising discovery is that most actors dont memorize their lines in the traditional sense at all. Rather, they begin by reading the script over and over again, looking for what they call the âoethroughlineââ"the causal chain that leads one event in the play to topple into the next and the next. âoeAlmost every line of the script is mined for clues as to the characters, situations, or relationships,â Noice writes, commenting on the method practiced by the actors she interviewed.
They are searching for the intentions of the playâs characters: why they do what they do, and especially, why they say what they say. Actors pay minute attention to every snatch of dialogue because each word offers a hint of the speakerâs motivations and desires. As they engage in this âoemicro-levelâ processing of the material, Noice notes, memorization of the lines just happens: âoeAt no time did the actors attempt to memorize the words directly, but rather tried to discern why the character would use those particular words to express that particular thought.â
Another key to actorsâ superlative memories: words are often intimately connected to actions onstage. Cast membersâ movements are carefully blocked out during rehearsal, and so their lines are always matched to the same physical motions, forming a kind of bodily mnemonic device. Indeed, Noiceâs studies show that months after the final performance of a play, actors recalled dialogue that had been accompanied by movement about the stage better than dialogue that had been spoken while remaining in place.
âoeYouâve got to have these two tracks going simultaneouslyâ"âThis is what I say, and this is when and where I move,ââ one of the actors told Noice. âoeOne feeds the other, and you move and say the lineâ in a synchrony of speech and action.
Lastly, the emotions actors bring to their parts sear the words into their memories. Acting is no dry recitation, but an evocation of actual emotion and the visceral feelings brought forth on stage make the words that go with them hard to forget. Although these principles were enumerated by professional actors and not cognitive psychologists, all three of themâ"deep processing, physical movement and emotional associationsâ"find substantial support in the scientific literature on memory."
From the page: "The authors studied the nomograms with the hope that at least 1 could provide optimal vancomycin trough concentrations while minimizing the risk of reaching supratherapeutic drug concentrations, which can cause nephrotoxicity. A recent meta-analysis of 14 adult studies and 1 pediatric study found an increased risk for nephrotoxicity associated with vancomycin trough concentrations higher than 15 μg/mL (odds ratio, 2.67; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.95 - 3.65).
Participants received vancomycin treatment between February 1, 2011, and July 31, 2012. In the final analysis, the researchers assessed 48 vancomycin dosing regimens from 38 individual patients drawn at different hospitalizations. Median patient age was 16 years, median weight was 54 kg, and median baseline serum creatinine was 0.60 mg/dL (range, 0.33 1 mg/dL). The researchers included an equal number of boys and girls in the final analysis.
Nomogram A predicted lower vancomycin dosing regimens compared with those actually used to achieve therapeutic trough concentrations. This nomogram was designed for patients weighing 40 to 110 kg and with a creatinine clearance of 30 to 110 mL/minute, with a goal target trough concentration of 15 to 20 mg/mL. It predicted a mean daily dose that statistically differed from the average daily dose prescribed.
Nomogram B was developed for patients aged 18 years or older and 40 kg or heavier, modifying the dose and dosing interval according to the actual body weight and estimated creatinine clearance. Similarly, the average dose predicted by nomogram B differed significantly from the prescribed daily dose.
"On average, the daily vancomycin dose predicted by nomogram B was 4,214 mg, a dose that could lead to supratherapeutic trough concentrations if applied to this patient population," the authors write.
"Calculation of vancomycin dosing in children should therefore take into account not only the age and weight of the patient but also carefully consider characteristics that might affect vancomycin pharmacokinetics, such as renal function, hydration status, and other comorbidities," coauthor Jim Cassat, MD, PhD, clinical fellow of pediatric infectious diseases at Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, told Medscape Medical News.
The investigators also call for more careful monitoring of these older children. "Clinicians caring for children receiving vancomycin therapy should carefully monitor serum vancomycin concentrations and renal function, especially in those situations in which pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic kinetics may be altered by illness or injury," Dr. Cassat said."
From the page: "A combination of 10 Chinese medicinal herbs in a capsule, known as Tianqi, reduced progression to type 2 diabetes in people with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) in a randomized controlled trial in China.
This is the first study to show that a Chinese herbal medicine can "reduce the progression of prediabetes to diabetes," says study author Chun-Su Yuan, MD, PhD, from the Tang Center for Herbal Medicine Research at the University of Chicago, Illinois. Tianqi "could provide a new option for diabetes management, using herbal medicine alone or as an adjuvant to currently used therapies," he noted.
The results are published online January 16 in the Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, and Dr. Yuan said robust data such as these are needed to help promote the use of Chinese herbal medicine by physicians in different countries.
Most significantly, the researchers found that taking Tianqi reduced the risk for diabetes by almost a third (32.1%) compared with placebo, after adjustment for age and gender. The proportion of participants who had normal glucose tolerance after 12 months of receiving either Tianqi or placebo was 63.1% (n=125) and 46.6% (n=89), respectively (P = .001). A total of 36 participants in the Tianqi group (18.18%) and 56 in the"
From the page: "It is complete bone tissue that we recreate in the bottle and therefore when we do transplants in a bone defect or a bone hole...you have a higher chance of bone formation."
The new material in a lab dish resembles more plasticine than bone, but can be moulded to fill a fracture, rather like a dentist's filling in a tooth, hardening in the body.
Some of those treated have included people recovering from tumours that had to be removed from bones. One 13-year-old boy, with a fracture and disorder that rendered him unable to repair bone, could resume sports within 14 months of treatment.
"Our hope is to propose this technology directly in emergency rooms to reconstitute bones when you have a trauma or something like that," Dufrane said.
A spin-off founded last year called Novadip Biosciences will seek to commercialise the treatment, initially to allow spinal fusion among elderly people with degenerated discs.
It may also seek to create a bank of bone tissue from donors rather than the patients themselves.
IFATS president Marco Helder, based at Amsterdam's VU university medical centre, said the novelty was the lack of solid scaffold.
"It is interesting and it is new, but it will have limitations regarding load-bearing capacity and, as with other implants, it will need to connect to the blood vessels of the body rapidly to avoid dying off," he said, adding:
"Any foreign object can cause irritation and problems, so the fact that this is just host tissue would be an advantage.""
From the page: "Researchers looked at a sample of 7153 participants in the Whitehall II Study who had the requisite data on alcohol consumption and other covariates. The ongoing study, which includes British civil servants, was started in 1985-1988, with a cohort that was 67% male.
Researchers categorized amounts of reported daily alcohol consumption. The reference category for men in the main analysis was 0.1 to 19.9 grams per day. In women, the reference consumption was between 0.1 and 9.9 grams per day. In the United States, a standard drink is 0.6 fluid ounces 窶* or 14 grams 窶* of alcohol.
The cognitive battery of 4 tests (a short-term verbal memory test and 3 tests of executive function) was carried out starting in 1997-1999 when the participants ranged in age from 44 to 69 years, and then repeated twice during the next 10 years.
The study showed that men who consumed 36 or more grams of alcohol a day showed faster declines on all cognitive measures compared with those consuming 0.1 to 19.9 grams a day.
The difference in 10-year decline in the global cognitive score was -0.10 (95% confidence interval [CI], -0.16 to -0.04; P ﾋ, .005). The difference in executive function was -0.06 (95% CI, -0.12 to 0.12; P ﾋ, .05); the difference in memory was -0.16 (95% CI, -0.26 to -0.05; P ﾋ, .005).
The effect sizes are comparable to 2.4 extra years of cognitive decline in the global cognitive score, 1.5 extra years for executive function, and 5.7 extra years for memory.
"We found that the decline in memory was accelerated by almost 6 years in heavy male drinkers," commented Dr. Sabia. "This means, for example, that a man aged 55 years drinking more than 36 grams of alcohol per day would have a decline in memory comparable to a man aged 61 years."
There was no clear association in relation to beer or wine, which suggests that the effect of the overall alcohol consumption was not driven by a specific beverage, said Dr. Sabia"
Although abstention did not seem to have an effect on cognitive decline in men, it did have an effect in women. Compared with women consuming 0.1 to 9.9 grams per day, the 10-year abstainers experienced faster decline in the global cognitive score (difference: -0.21; P ˂ .05) and executive functions (-0.17; P ˂ .05) corresponding to about 5 extra years of cognitive decline.
However, said Dr. Sabia, because the number of abstainers was small and their characteristics likely differed from other participants, "this result has to be replicated in other studies, including a higher number of abstainers, before drawing conclusions."
The study did not examine the effect on cognition of binge drinking, but Dr. Sabia pointed to the "large literature on the detrimental effect of binge drinking, particularly in young adults."
The ways in which excessive alcohol consumption might speed cognitive decline are complex, although the main hypothesis focuses on cerebrovascular and cardiovascular pathways, and involves effects that play out over time, said Dr. Sabia.
"Light to moderate alcohol consumption is associated with better vascular outcomes, while both abstinence and heavy alcohol consumption are associated with higher risk of vascular disease, which, in turn, may increase the risk of cognitive impairment," she said. "Furthermore, heavy alcohol consumption has detrimental short- and long-term effects on the brain, including direct neurotoxic effect, proinflammatory effects, and indirect impact via cerebrovascular disease and vitamin deficiency."
The study findings are in line with previous research and with accepted guidelines. According to Dr. Sabia, drinking fewer than 2-3 drinks a day for men and 1-2 drinks for women is "probably not deleterious" for cognitive outcomes.
But these "safe limits" may be too high for older people because of the physiologic and metabolic changes related to aging, said Dr. Sabia. She pointed to recent evidence from a UK Royal College of Psychiatrists report (page 8) that suggests that the upper limit for those older than 65 years is 1.5 units per day or 11 units per week (1 unit = 8 grams).
Some countries have specific consumption guidelines for the elderly. For example, said Dr. Sabia, the US National Institutes of Health (NIH) recommends that people older than 65 years not consume more than 7 drinks a week, and that they have no more than 3 drinks on any given day.