game of thrones
game of thrones
From the page: "DEBIT CARD PHISHING ALERT
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From the page: "Ag"
From the page: "Basic Character
All the alkaline earth metal hydroxides are bases except Be (OH)2 which is amphoteric. This basic strength increases as we move down the group. This is because of increase in size which results in decrease of ionization energy which weakens the strength of M 窶" O bonds in MOH and thus increases the basic strength. However, these hydroxides are less basic than the corresponding alkali metal hydroxides because of higher ionization energies, smaller ionic sizes and greater lattice energies."
From the page: "ICE Tables
Table of Contents
2. Checklist for ICE tables
3. Practice Problems
4. Outside Links
An ICE (Initial, Change, Equilibrium) table is simple matrix formalism that used to simplify the calculations in reversible equilibrium reactions (often involving weak acids or weak bases). ICE is a simple acronym for the titles of the first column of the table.
I stands for initial concentration.
C stands for the change in concentration.
E is for the concentration when the reaction is at equilibrium.
ICE tables are composed of the concentrations of molecules in solution in different stages of a reaction, and are usually used to calculate the K, or equilibrium constant expression, of a reaction (in some instances, K may be given, and one or more of the concentrations in the table will be the unknown to be solved for). ICE tables automatically set up and organize the variables and constants needed when calculating the unknown.
ICE is a simple acronym for the titles of the first column of the table.
I stands for initial concentration. This is the concentration that the reaction starts out in.
C stands for the change in concentration. This is the concentration change needed to get the reaction from start to equilibrium. It is the difference between the equilibrium and initial rows. The concentrations in this row are, unlike the other rows, expressed with either an appropriate positive (+) or negative (-) sign because this row represents change up or down (or no change).
E is for the concentration when the reaction is at equilibrium. This is the summation of the initial and change rows. If you are looking for Kc, as you often will be at this stage of chemistry, this is the goal. Once you have the values in this row, you can easily obtain Kc by plugging them into the equation for Kc.
We will learn by doing a few examples. Setting up an actual ICE table will familiarize you with them better than abstract definitions, so let us consider an example of a reaction of general form:
Using an ICE table to determine the Kc for the balanced general reaction:
where the capital letters represent the products and reactants.
This equation will be placed horizontally above the table, with each product and reactant having a separate column.
A sample consisting of 0.500 mol of X is placed into a system with volume 0.750 Liter.
This statement implies that there are no initial amounts of Y and Z. For the I row of the Y and Z columns, 0.000 mol will be entered.
Notice that we are using amounts. The amounts can either be converted to concentrations before putting them into the ICE table or after the equilibrium amounts have been calculated. In this example, we will use the number of moles when filling in the ICE table (concentration can be calculated later).
At equilibrium, the amount of sample X is known to be 0.350 mol.
For the equilibrium row of X, 0.350 mol will be entered. As you will see, this and the initial amount will help us find the other unknown amounts in the ICE table.
We know that the equilibrium constant expression can be expressed as products over reactants, with each to the power of their respective amounts:
Unfortunately, we do not know what the concentrations of Y and Z is in the equilibrium stage. To solve for them, we will construct the ICE table. This is the information we were given:
STEP 1: Fill in the given amounts
Reaction: 2X 3Y 4Z
Initial amounts 0.500 mol 0.000 mol 0.000 mol
Change in amount ? ? ?
Equilibrium amount 0.350 mol ? ?
This is the first step in setting up the ICE table. As mentioned above, the ICE mnemonic is vertical and the equation heads the table horizontally, giving the rows and columns of the table, respectively. The numerical amounts were given. Any amount not directly given is yet unknown.
STEP 2: Fill in the amount of change for each compound
Reaction 2X 3Y 4Z
Initial amounts 0.500 mol 0.000 mol 0.000 mol
Change in amount -0.150 mol +0.225 mol +0.300 mol
Equilibrium amounts 0.350 mol ? ?
Notice that the equilibrium in this equation is shifted to the right, meaning that some amount of reactant will be taken away and some amount of product will be added (for the Change row).
The change in amount X can be found easily by using algebra:
Solving for the Change in the amount of 2X gives:
The change in reactants and the balanced equation of the reaction is known, so we can calculate the change in products. Take a look at the stoichiometric constants. For every 2 mol of X that is reacted, 3 mol of Y and 4 mol of Z are produced. The relationship is as follows:
From the page: "tricapped trigonal prismatic molecular geometry describes the shape of compounds where nine atoms, groups of atoms, or ligands are arranged around a central atom, defining the vertices of a tricapped trigonal prism (a trigonal prism with an extra atom attached to each of its three rectangular faces)."
From the page: "XeF6"
From the page: "Iodine heptafluoride (IF7) with 7 bonding groups"
From the page: "Numerous compounds adopt this geometry, examples being especially numerous for transition metal complexes. The noble gas compound XeF4 adopts this structure as predicted by VSEPR theory. The geometry is prevalent for transition metal complexes with d8 configuration, which includes Rh(I), Ir(I), Pd(II), Pt(II), and Au(III)."
From the page: "Some molecular compounds that adopt square pyramidal geometry are XeOF4, and XF5"
From the page: "T-shaped geometry results from three ligands and two or three lone pairs of electrons bonded to the central atom (known in AXE notation as AX3E2 and AX3E3, respectively). The three atoms bond at 90° angles on one side of the central atom, producing the T shape."
From the page: "Phosphorus pentachloride is a molecule with a trigonal bipyramidal geometry. The phosphorus atom shares a plane with three chlorine atoms which are at 120 degrees angles to each other (equatorial positions), with two more chlorine atoms above and below the plane (apical or axial positions)."
From the page: "trigonal pyramid is a molecular geometry with one atom at the apex and three atoms at the corners of a trigonal base. When all three atoms at the corners are identical, the molecule belongs to point group C3v. Some molecules and ions with trigonal pyramidal geometry are ammonia (NH3), xenon trioxide, XeO3, the chlorate ion, ClO3秧', and the sulfite ion, SO32秧'. In organic chemistry, molecules which have a trigonal pyramidal geometry are sometimes described as sp3 hybridized. The AXE method for VSEPR theory states that the classification is AX3E1."
From the page: "tetrahedral molecular geometry a central atom is located at the center with four substituents that are located at the corners of a tetrahedron. The bond angles are cos秧'1(秧'1/3) 秧 109.5ﾂｰ when all four substituents are the same, as in CH4. This molecular geometry is common throughout the first half of the periodic table. The perfectly symmetrical tetrahedron belongs to point group Td, but most tetrahedral molecules are not of such high symmetry. Tetrahedral molecules can be chiral."
From the page: "can be applied to certain molecules to describe their molecular geometry. Certain atoms, such as oxygen, due to their electron configuration will almost always set their two (or more) covalent bonds in non-collinear directions. H2O is an example of a bent molecule. The bond angle between the two hydrogen atoms is approximately 104.45°. Nonlinear triatomic molecules and ions are common for compounds containing only main group elements, prominent examples being water, nitrogen dioxide, SCl2, and the CH2.
This geometry is almost always consistent with VSEPR theory, which usually explain non-collinearity of atoms with a presence of lone pairs. There are several variants of bending, where the most common is AX2E2 where two covalent bonds and two lone pairs of the central atom (A) form a complete 8-electron shell. They have central angles from 104° to 109.5°, where the latter is consistent with a simplistic theory which predicts the tetrahedral symmetry of four sp3 hybridised orbitals. The most common actual angles are 105°, 107°, and 109°: they vary because of different properties of peripheral atoms (X)."
From the page: "count"
From the page: "Ryan Cabrera"
From the page: " "
From the page: "r"
From the page: "people ask me why it's so hard to trust people,
and i ask them why is it so hard to keep a promise"