February 8 is The Birth of a Nation's 94th birthday and Jules Verne's 181st birthday. The first was a groundbreaking and controversial movie, a landmark in cinema history. The second was an original and imaginative writer.
What makes a classic? What makes for a movie that gets taught in film schools and stays in public awareness for more than its 15 minutes of fame?
Here is a tour of some of the most controversial and groundbreaking movies of all time - framed as tips for the beginning director who aims at immortality.