From the page: Cargo-cult programming
The term comes from the Cargo Cults that appeared in many pacific islands during World War II. During the war, the US used the illands as bases and built airstrips for their cargo planes. The natives were amazed by the planes who brought all those goods and food. When the war was over, the planes disappeared, and the natives built their own air strips, with bamboo control towers, in the hope that if they did exactly like the white men did, the planes would return and bring back the beloved cargo.
Cargo cult programming is the practice of applying a popular solution just because everybody else is doing and it seems to work form them, but without understanding why it is being done that way. Lots of people engaged on it during the first years of J2EE by overusing EJBs and Entity Beans, for example.
Least effort programming
This style is very common specially among junior developers. One day you are assigned a task to fix a NullPointerException, so you just go to the line of code where the exception is generated and surrounds it with a if (reference != null).
It may very well work but you didn't solve the cause of the bug, you just hid it until it comes back to haunt you again. What you should have done is to go back and fix the problem that caused the reference to be null in the first place.
Design pattern driven programming
As the name says, it is the programming style where you use design patterns for EVERYTHING. Your code is full of Facade this, Observer that, Strategy whatever, Adapter, blah blah blah. It reaches a point where you have to dig real deep to find the code that does the actual job in the middle of the Design Pattern Tangle.